Δευτέρα, 15 Σεπτεμβρίου 2008

Lifelong Learning in Northern Aegean Greece

Lifelong Learning and Vocational Training Programmes in Northern Aegean (Greece): Weaknesses, possibilities and prospects

Giavrimis, P., Papanis, Ε., Mitrellou, S., Nikolarea, E.

Abstract: This study presents, discusses and assesses the findings of a research into lifelong learning through Vocational Training Centres (VTCs) in the region of Northern Aegean, Greece. In the first part, the paper introduces its readers to the theoretical framework of lifelong education, whereas in the second part it makes a brief historical overview of it in Greece. The third and largest part of the study presents, discusses and assesses the findings related to the trainees’ opinions on a variety of aspects of their lifelong vocational training programmes in Northern Aegean, Greece.

1. Introduction: Lifelong education

During the industrial period, the integration of machines in the production and the scientific organisation of work led to the standardisation and massification of school education. The result of those tendencies was the predominance of behavioural methods in teaching and the development of classifications, as those made by Bloom, with an oriented methodology and objectives.

During the post-industrial period, education has re-defined its objectives and - having understood the requirements of new technologies and the individualisation of life as well as the flexibility which is the prerequisite of social survival – turns again to micro-level, that is, to the existing dynamics of the classroom and the systemic dimension of education (Gotovos 1990, Kelpanidis 2002, Kossyvaki 2003, Hargreaves 2003, Chiotakis 2004, Giavrimis et al 2007). Thus, as the criterion of social development and success is considered the timely and valid access to information. In a knowledge society the educated (and trained) individual is the emblem and the symbol of the society (Giavrimis et al 2007). In the labour market and business world continuing education is an integral functional component, since productivity depends more and more on the employees’ competences, skills and training (Robolis et al 1999, Katrivesis, 2003). The introduction of technologies to businesses alters not only their organisation but also the form of work. In return, technologies require suitable specialised human resources who can respond to the continuous developments and technological advances (P.N.U.D. 2001).

Within the paradigm of a post-modern world, differentiations and uncertainty in social and labour relations, individuals’ ‘life histories’, their life style, the perception of reality and how individuals handle acute problems can be distinguished (Rifkin 1996). The old contract used to be a long-term agreement of relations and was based on security and reciprocal ‘devotion’. The new work contract lasts less and less; it is based mainly on economic transactions, while ‘devotion’ in the old sense has disappeared. If this new reality is taken into consideration, this contract often needs to be re-negotiated and individuals-employees themselves should take the responsibility for their career advancement and the acquisition of new competences and skills. Security is not connected with employment any more and, in this sense, it should not be sought in the working place (Tsiolis 2005). As it is predicted, in the future the individual may change 5-7 professions or kinds of employment and security will be connected with the acquisition and accumulation of competences and skills as well as with personal reputation, which can be invested in new occasions. The caring character of the State – that is, welfare - is progressively being eliminated and the only guarantee for the individual is his/her aptitude to foresee and go along with developments and technological advances. This situation increases the number of vulnerable and thus disadvantaged groups, which are suddenly cut off from the access to social sources, marginalized and live under poverty limits (Rifkin 1996, Galbraith 1998, Negreponti-Delivani 2001). A characteristic example of this situation is that of the unemployed above 45 years of age who have been laid off and do not have the essential competences and skills to be recruited again. An answer to these thorny questions is lifelong education (University of Piraeus 2001, CEDEFOP 2003).

In the texts of international organisations, such as OECD and the EU, it is claimed that applications of ICT make the acquired knowledge obsolete, while individuals should renew continuously and ‘update’ their knowledge so not to be excluded from the labour market. The individual is called for taking full advantage of the knowledge that s/he acquires (during all his/her life), aiming to stay in the labour market (OECD 1996).
1.1. Redefining education: Adult education, lifelong learning and training

The meaning of education is being re-defined, while in our days the relationship of education with learning and knowledge is sought in a world permanently altered (Gouvias 2003). In an ever increasingly altered labour environment human resources should be flexible and can take from the educational system those elements that will allow them to learn during all their life (Kelpanidis and Vrynioti 2004).

In the White Paper on economy that was issued and presented by the European Commission (1993), it is mentioned that education and training are expected to resolve the problems of businesses’ competitiveness, the employment crisis and the tragedy of social exclusion in a society based more and more on production, transfer and dissemination of knowledge rather than on circulation of goods. Furthermore, it is expressed the belief that access to the theoretical and practical knowledge should inevitably play a decisive role. The Lisbon Strategy features knowledge as the main means for attaining better work places, a view that is also incorporated in the European Employment Strategy. The promotion of lifelong learning has become one of the priorities in the Lisbon Summit because of its important contribution to achieving objectives such as ‘employability’ and ‘adaptability’ (European Council of Lisbon 2000, OECD / European Commission 2004, Pantidis and Pasias 2003).

Thus, it is understood that the individual should be educated and trained continually in order to keep up with the changes. Therefore, objectives of adult education are to support adults to find and keep a post in the labour market and to help them be incorporated smoothly in the cultural and political life of a given country. The basic principles of adult education are: to compensate for educational gaps and bridge the gap of professional opportunities among citizens; to enable trainees able to examine critically the social, cultural and economic life of (their) country; to train employees so they acquire new competences and skills, thus getting a full-time work and satisfying their personal ambitions and interests (UNESCO 1976, Mezirow 1981, 1991, Rogers 1989, Kokkos 1999, 2005).

The prospect of lifelong learning has to do with the fact that individuals cannot only acquire knowledge but also develop and enhance whatever they have already learned regardless time and place.

Lifelong learning is a policy that is promoted so to give solutions to the problem of unemployment in the Member States of the EU. However, as it becomes conspicuous, the promotion of policies of lifelong learning is connected, to a large extent, with what is defined as ‘active policies for employment’, aiming to activate and strengthen the individual so that s/he can face problems and give solutions to them, instead of seeking solutions through state funding. Therefore, a new set of values and work ethics are established (Tsiolis 2005).

Through governmental policies for employment, vocational training is viewed as the only solution that can ‘cure’ unemployment problems and contribute to the social incorporation of employees and the unemployed. Furthermore, according to Dimoulas (2002: 35), ‘it may be not only the most important active employment policy but also the policy that can enhance business competitiveness and economies’.

2. Continuing education and vocational training in Greece

2.1. An overview

The first activities of continuing vocational training in Greece were developed by public services and government-owned organisations as well as by big private industrial units in the middle of 1950s.

However, the small number of specialised employees that was not enough to cover the needs of labour market – due to the rapid and uneven economic growth that was taking place in Greece at the time as well as to the lack of an effectively organised national system of initial vocational education and training before the 1960s (Mylonas 1998) - led to the development of activities of continuing vocational training that were restricted mainly to the forms of substitution or completion of initial vocational training. Consequently, the distinction between initial and continuing vocational training was rather vague in Greece, and activities of continuing training were marginal up to the end of the 1980s.

Since then, there has been a very intense development of continuing vocational training, which has been dominated primarily by the State funding, the abundance and diversity of establishments which can provide training programmes as well as by an orientation to the changing needs of the labour market.

A complex network of public and private establishments and institutions has been established, which provides continuing vocational training to employees and the unemployed. This network has been developed simultaneously but independently of the formal system of professional training. Moreover, most big companies have been organising training activities for their personnel (National Hellenic Essay to OECD 2003, Efstratoglou 2004, Linardos-Rulmon 2004).

However, despite these important activities of continuing vocational training, only recently has the question of quality started to be discussed and considered as an important issue by private and public educational establishments and institutions and, more specifically, by the competent government-owned authorities. This has been happening mainly for reasons of public reliability, transparency of training market and effectiveness of training, since most activities of continuing vocational training in today’s Greece have been co-funded by the Greek state and the European Union (EU) (Chasapis 1994).

2.2. Legal framework of continuing education establishments and institutions in Greece

In Greece, according to Law 3369/05 that is additional to the provisions of Law 3191/2003 on the National System of Connection of Education and Training with Employment, the concepts of lifelong education, lifelong vocational training are defined and the establishments and institutions providing lifelong education and lifelong vocational training are specified. Such institutions are Schools of Second Opportunity (for those individuals who have not completed their obligatory education), Adult Education Centres, Schools for Parents, Committees of Prefectures for Popular Training (for trainees regardless their education level) and Institutes of Vocational Training, which have been operating within the National System of Education and Training since 1992 and have been monitored by the Organisation of Vocational Training. At the same time, there have been operating Institutes of Vocational Training – which have been monitored by various Ministries and establishments, such as the Organisation of Occupation of the Workforce (OOWF [OAED in Greek]) - and Vocational Training Centres (VTCs) for graduates of obligatory, secondary education and tertiary education.

In the aforementioned establishments are included:

Public authorities and government-owned organisations that are focused primarily on the unemployed, individuals who are threatened by unemployment, employees who are insufficiently trained, unskilled or semi-specialised as well as on various disadvantaged groups of population; a good example of such a kind of organisations is OOWF.
Universities and educational Institutions that are focused mainly on technical, commercial and administrative supervisors and staff.
Professional contacts and chambers that are focused primarily on their members.
Establishments founded by associations of employers, such as the Institute of Industrial Education of Business Personnel, and of employees and workers, such as the Institute of the National Workers' Union of Greece; these two establishments are both focused on all levels of specialised workers.
Centres of regional and local authorities addressing various groups of their region.
Private establishments of development and training of human resources and workforce addressing various groups of employees and workers (Chasapis 1994).
Moreover, with Law 3369/05, Lifelong Education Institutes can be founded, first, by the Senate or Managing Committee of universities and, second, by the Assembly or Managing Committee of Higher Technological Educational Institutions (TEIs). Furthermore, the organisation and administration of these Institutes are outlined and various details of their operation are specified.

The effective institutional framework establishes four fields in which policies of Continuing Vocational Training are implemented (Baloti 1997, Mardas 2001, Amitsis 2000). These fields are:

Training of the unemployed.
Training of employees / workers of the private sector.
Training of employees / workers of the wider public sector.
Training of socially vulnerable and disadvantaged groups.
At the level of national planning, training is provided by two operational programmes: (1) by ‘Education and Initial Vocational Training’; and (2) by ‘Information Society’; both programmes are funded by the 3rd Community Support Framework. In the context of exercising policies, the policy for lifelong education adopted by the Greek educational system aims to promote and enhance education and vocational training as an integral part of lifelong learning (Hellenic Ministry of Employment and Social Protection-E.C. 2005, GSAE 2006).
2.3. Adult education and vocational training in Greece

One of the basic aspects of lifelong learning is adult education. In Greece, the public establishment which is primarily responsible for adult education and vocational training is the General Secretariat of Adult Education. Its mission is to plan, co-ordinate and support activities concerning the completion of basic education and lifelong education and training for human resources of the country as well as for those individuals that are threatened by social exclusion.

3. A research into the implementation of lifelong learning training programmes in Northern Aegean (Greece)

In the wider area of Northern Aegean, Greece, a research into the implementation of lifelong learning training programmes was carried out. More particularly, its primary aim was to investigate how lifelong learning was implemented by and through VTCs in the respective region. In the following sub-sections, findings related to trainees’ opinions on their lifelong vocational training is presented, discussed and assessed.

3.1. Sample

The sample of the research consisted of 150 trainees in the VTCs in the region of Northern Aegean in Greece. Of them, 50 individuals (33,3%) were employees and 100 individuals (66,7%) were unemployed. Of the trainees, 33 (22%) were men and 117 (78%) were women. Moreover, 18 individuals (12%) were between 18 and 24 years of age, 70 individuals (46,7%) were between 25 and 34, 40 individuals (26,7%) were between 35 and 44, 11 individuals (7,3%) were between 45 and 54 years and 11 individuals (7,3%) were above 55 years of age. As far as the place of origin is concerned, 103 individuals (68.7%) were from the island of Lesvos, 31 individuals (20,7%) were from the island of Chios and 16 individuals (10,7%) were from the island of Samos.

Furthermore, 6,1% of the individuals were individuals with special needs, 46,9% were long-lasting unemployed, 4,1% were mothers having many children, 18,4% were with cultural religious particularities and 18,4% were newcomers in the labour market.

Regarding individuals’ educational level, it is suffice to say that 3 individuals (2%) were primary school graduates, 4 individuals (2,7%) were graduates of gymnasium (i.e. junior high school), 72 individuals (50%) were graduates of lyceum (i.e. high school), 35 individuals (26,7%) graduates Technological Educational Institutions (TEIs) and 34 individuals (24,7%) were university graduates. With regard to their nationality, 108 individuals (72%) were Greeks and 42 were foreigners and repatriates.

3.2. Means of data collection

In that research a draft questionnaire on lifelong education was used. Its construction was based on researches and findings of international bibliography as well as on the researchers’ experience of issues for lifelong education. A particular emphasis was also put on access to both concepts and statistics.
3.3. Results

In the following paragraphs there will be a presentation of findings related to the trainees’ opinions on lifelong education. At the beginning, the percentage rate of questions relevant to training programmes are mentioned, while later the differences in independent variables - such as sex, age and educational level of the trainees – are discussed and assessed.

From the results of data analysis, it becomes conspicuous that a big percentage of individuals participated in more than one training programmes. Thus, 118 individuals (78,7%) participated in one at least training seminar, while 50% of them took part in more than two seminars.

With regard to being informed about the conduct of training programmes, 85 individuals (51,2%) learned it from the OOWF, 45 individuals (27,1%) from acquaintances and friends, 22 individuals (13,3%) from newspapers, 7 individuals (4,2%) from the television and 7 individuals (4,2%) from their family. The rest (50,7%) participated in those lifelong education seminars of their own accord. In other words, about half of individuals were informed about and got oriented to those programmes by the OOWF, while a big percentage of the participants learned about them from their social networks. Concerning their participation in the training programmes, half of the individuals were prompted to participate in those seminars by their family (22,7%), friends (14%) and by their labour environment (12,7%).

The reasons that motivated the individuals of our research to participate in the processes of lifelong education are: training/knowledge (37,2%), finding of a job (23,7%), economic reasons (21,1%), social contacts (12,4%) and escape from the house (5,6%).

According to the trainees, the obstacles that discourage them from participating in training programmes were the distance from the training centres (32,2%), family (31,46%), lack of time (29,7%) and employment (6,8%).

Regarding the benefits that the trainees got from their participation in those programmes as far as the level of knowledge is concerned, 115 individuals (76,68%) claimed that they benefited from them ‘much to very much’, 30 individuals (20%) ‘enough’, while 5 individuals (3,33%) claimed that they did not benefit ‘at all’ or ‘little’. As for the level of social relations, 8 individuals (5,33%) stated that they did not benefit at all or little, 17 individuals (11,33%) enough and 125 individuals (83,33%) declared that they benefited to a large extent. Finally, as far as the trainees’ relation to other trainees is concerned, it was evaluated positively by 109 individuals (72,7%), less positively by 28 (18,6%) and negatively by 13 (8,7%); see table 1.

Insert table 1 about here

As far as the evaluation of the organisation of the programmes is concerned, 130 individuals (86,7%) were positive, 19 individuals (12%) less positive and 10 individuals (6,7%) were negative. Regarding trainers’ communicability, 139 individuals (92,6%) were positive, 9 individuals (6%) less positive and 2 individuals (1,3%) negative. Furthermore, the collaboration that was developed between trainees and trainers was evaluated very positively by 137 individuals (91,33%), less positively by 10 individuals (6,7%) and negatively by 2 individuals (1,3%).

As shown in table 2, it becomes conspicuous that the programme answers the trainees’ expectations of the trainees, as 78 individuals (52%) stated that these programmes answered their expectations very much, 33 individuals (22%) to a great extent, 32 individuals (21,3%) claimed that these programmes answered their expectations enough, whereas only 7 individuals (4,7%) claimed that these programmes did not answer their expectations at all or little.

Moreover, 74 individuals (49,3%) considered that the programmes organised by VTCs combat unemployment to a large extent, 51 individuals (34%) believe that these Centres help enough and 25 individuals (4,7%) consider that they do not help at all or help very little.

Insert table 2 about here

Of the 150 individuals that were asked, 24 individuals (16%) found a job after they had participated in the programme, 94 individuals (62,7%) did not find a job and 32 individuals (21,3%) were not interested in finding a job. Of those that found a job after they had participated in the programme, 10 individuals (41,7%) said that that the programme was relevant to the training as such, 5 individuals (20,8%) that it was not relevant at all and 9 individuals (37,5%) stated that it was of little relevance. Moreover, regarding the vocational level, 69 individuals (46%) stated that they benefited from the programme ‘much - very much’, 35 individuals (30%) said that they benefited enough and 36 individuals (24%) did not benefit at all or benefited very little.

In addition, with regard to the impact of variable ‘sex’ on finding a job after a trainee had participated in the programme, it comes out that there is not any statistically important difference [χ2 (2)=4,293, p>0,05]. As table 3 illustrates, (a) only 3 men (9,1%) found a job, while 19 individuals (57,6%) could find nothing and 11 individuals (33,3%) were not interested (in finding a job); (b) 21 women (17,9%) found a job, 75 women (64,1%) remained unemployed and 21 women (17,9%) were not interested in finding a job; and (c) in total 24 individuals (16% of the sample) found a job, 94 (62,7%) stated they had yet to find a job, whereas 32 (21,3%) were not interested in finding a job.

Insert table 3 about here

Later, the impact of the independent variable ‘sex’ on the variable ‘long-lasting unemployed’ was investigated. As table 4 shows, the interaction of these variables is not statistically important [χ2 (10,841, p>0,05]. Regarding men, 8 individuals (24,20%) were long-lasting unemployed, while 25 individuals (75,80%) were not. Furthermore, 79 women (67,50%) were not long-lasting unemployed, whereas 38 (32,50%) were.

Insert table 4 about here

With regard to the impact of variable ‘sex’ on the variable of the ‘unemployed of an older age’, it is statistically important [χ2 (1)=9,345, p<0,05]. Thus, it is evident that the percentage with statistically important difference in women who are of young age [108 women (81,8%)] is higher than their counterpart of young unemployed men [24 men (18,2%)]. Moreover, there is a statistically important differentiation between the individuals of same sex. Thus, there are: (a) more young unemployed men [24 men of (72,7% of men)] than those of an older age [9 men (27,3% of men)]; and (b) more young unemployed women [108 women (92,3% of women)] than those of an older age [9 women (7,7% of women)]; see table 5.

Insert table 5 about here

From table 6, there cannot be deduced statistically important differences among educational levels as for finding a job after the trainees had participated in the training programme [χ2 (8)=11,273, p>0,05]. More specifically, of the individuals that found a work after they had participated in the training programme, 1 individual (4,76%) was a primary school graduate, no one was a graduate of the gymnasium (i.e. junior high school), 6 individuals (28,57%) were TEIs graduates and 7 individuals (33,33%) were university graduates. Of those who did not find a job, 1 individual (1,2%) was a primary school graduate, 3 individuals (3,5%) were gymnasium graduates, 51 (59,3%) were lyceum graduates, 16 individuals (18,6%) were TEIs graduates and 15 individuals (17,4%) were university graduates. Finally, of the individuals who were not interested in finding a job, 1 individual (4%) was a primary school graduate, an individual (4%) was a gymnasium graduate, 8 individuals (32%) were lyceum graduates, 9 individuals (36%) were TEIs graduates and 6 individuals (24%) were university graduates.

Insert table 6 about here

Regarding now the impact of age on finding a job after a trainee had participated in the training programme, statistically important differences are not conspicuous; see table 7 Of the individuals that found a job, the higher percentage – that is, 54,17% - is that of the individuals that are from 25 to 34 years of age. What comes afterwards is 20,83% of individuals from 25 to 44 years of age, 12,5% of individuals of above 55 years, 8,33% from 18 to 24 years of age and 4,17% from 45 to 54 years of age. Of those who did not find a job, 15 individuals (15,96%) were from 18 to 24 of age, 38 individuals (40,43%) from 25 to 34, 27 individuals (28,72%) from 35 to 44, 6 individuals (6,38%) from 45 to 54 and 8 individuals (8,51%) above 55 years of age. Moreover, of the individuals who were not interested in finding a job, 1 individual (3,13%) was between 18 and 24 years of age, 19 individuals (59,38%) from 25 to 34, 8 individuals (25%) from 35 to 44, 4 individuals (12,5%) from 45 to 54 and no individual above 55 years of age.

Insert table 7 about here

4. Concluding Remarks

Lifelong education is learning that is extended during life span. It includes all phases and forms of learning from preschool years up to retirement (European Commission 2002). It refers to the need that each individual has to be trained continually and to acquire certain competences, skills and qualifications, aiming to enhance his/her knowledge, skills and competences at personal, social and vocational level (Kokkos 1999, 2005).

More specifically, in a globalised society, great economic, technological, social, demographic and cultural changes create new challenges that require new forms of learning, so that individuals are empowered with knowledge and competences in order to face the changes and the uncertainty that these changes cause (Cross 1981, Edwards et al 1998, Jarvis 2004). Knowledge is force and undoubtedly is the ‘passport’ both for a successful (professional) career and an active participation in social life (Dimitropoulos 2002).

From the study of the trainees’ opinions, a positive attitude toward training programmes prevails, since these programmes seem to answer the trainees’ expectations.

According to the trainees, whereas the reasons that motivated the individuals of our research to participate in those lifelong education processes were quite a lot - such as their yearning for personal development (through acquisition of knowledge, competences and skills) and their integration in the labour market, the opportunity to create social relations and wean themselves off their family - the distance from education centres, their family, lack of time and employment discouraged them from their participating in those training programmes. It is also evident that networking in these programmes neither answered the individuals’ local needs nor corresponded to the job market and, at the same time, these individuals and their family have yet to be convinced for the necessity and usefulness of these programmes.

As far as the organisation of these training programmes, it is worth mentioning that neither particular problems nor faults were observed and that trainers had those qualifications and skills required for adult education. The adult trainer has a central place within the framework of lifelong learning, as s/he directs trainees and functions as a model for them. The research also showed that trainees value positively their trainer’s communicability. All these points agree with the fact that these training programmes seem to answer the trainees’ expectations.

Generally speaking, the objective of training programmes is to combat unemployment by developing trainees’ skills that will be suitable for a globalized environment and an extended job market (Giavrimis et al 2007). However, it can be observed from the analysis of the present research that, even if trainees believe that programmes can combat unemployment, an important percentage of trainees did not manage to find work after they had participated in the training programmes.

Moreover, an interesting point is that, whenever the percentage of unskilled workers and employees is decreased and the percentage of the lyceum and university graduates is increased, the unemployment rates are in reverse proportion to the level of education and training. At this point, it is worth being observed that an important percentage of individuals was not interested in finding a job, while, if this is combined with the fact that more than half of the individuals participated in more than one training programmes, then it can be deduced that the subsidy that was given for these programmes motivated the individuals to participate in lifelong education training programmes despite the fact that these individuals were not interested in finding a job or did not have an immediate need to work.

More generally, a bias regarding ‘sex’ and ‘finding a job’ prevails. The factor ‘sex’ can be decisive for the prospects an individual has for education, since equality between the sexes is not particularly promoted. More specifically, although the trainees believe that men dominate professional and vocational careers, yet it is women who dominate adult education programmes. Moreover, the research has shown that there is no particular difference between the sexes and finding a job. The same is also valid for age. The belief that adult trainees should stop neither being developed nor progressing is once more confirmed. On the contrary, individuals should take advantage of every opportunity to get trained independently of age, because life is adapted to knowledge and learning. It is pointed out that those who are affected more by unemployment were women who were of younger age than their male counterparts (i.e. men of younger age) and, regarding individuals of the same sex, younger individuals were affected more than older ones.

Perhaps, a tentative explanation is that in recent years individuals have been placed in the labour market at an older age, thus intensifying the phenomenon of unemployment among the young and, more particularly, among young women. In addition, older individuals have deleted enough years of work from their CVs in order to get a post (Zisimopoulou and Koutsotheodorou 2002).

From the process of the data research, it becomes obvious that the objectives of lifelong education should be focused more on the development of social skills and on those skills that will allow trainees to develop their knowledge continually, so that they can keep up with and adapt to changes. It is a fact that most participants in the programmes determine their attitude toward them according to their various expectations (Rogers, 1989). Lifelong education programmes need to re-adjust their learning objects and objectives so to correspond to the various employment posts and needs expressed by the globalized environment, as these needs are transformed into a regional and local level.

At this point, it would be worth noting that should trainers use a suitable methodology and practice, it would help trainees develop those competences and skills that will strengthen their role in their working place and the labour market. It is also important that there will be a suitable networking between various establishments and institutions that are involved in combating unemployment and developing labour market, so that the resulting needs can be recognized better and can be covered and fulfilled by specific training programmes. What is useful is the development of an observatory to record a needs analysis, knowledge, competences, skills and attitudes required in a post-modern environment, social cohesion, social capital, corporation culture as well as the analysis of regional and local infrastructures.

Moreover, lifelong learning should be combined with labour practices of incorporation and inclusion, the provision of individualised consulting services of consulting and professional orientation from establishments such as the OOWF, a better co-ordination and modernisation of regional and local supporting services, so that rational exploitation of human resources as well as of material and technical infrastructure (training combined with professional experience) can be attained. The respective actions should meet the expectations of the unemployed as well as the needs of the productive web.

Lifelong education is a policy trying to solve the problem of unemployment. More education in the globalized environment means simultaneously smaller danger of unemployment and vice versa. The level of education determines to a large extent the level of training and, naturally, professional opportunities; that is, there is a direct correlation of level of education and unemployment. The changes so much in the way of production as in the work place confirm the importance of lifelong education for employment, while the character of education acts positively upon employment and, with lifelong education, incorporates the individual in the labour market.
References

Amitsis, G. (2000), Institutions and policies of vocational training: The European challenge and the development of the National System of Vocational Training (Athens: Papazisis) [in Modern Greek].

Baloti, Ch. (1997), Initial and continuing vocational training in Greece (Athens: E.I.E.) [in Modern Greek].

CEDEFOP (2003). Lifelong learning: citizens’ views. European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (European Union, Luxembourg).

Chasapis, D., (1994), Quality in continuing vocational training in Greece (Athens: E.I.E.) [in Modern Greek].

Chiotakis, S., (2004), School handbooks and “socially constructed” knowledge: A passage from a schoolbook as a starting point of a dialogue with “New Sociology of Education” Vima ton Koinonikon Epistimon (: Forum of Social Sciences).

Cross P., (1981), Adults as Learners (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass).

Dimitropoulos, Ε., (2002), Job hunting: From education to career. Athens: Ellinika Grammata [in Modern Greek].

Dimoulas, Κ., (2002). Welfare state and vocational training: The case of Greece (1980-2000). Unpublished PhD Dissertation (Department of Polity and Public Administration, School of Legal, Economical and Political Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens) [in Modern Greek].

Edwards, R., Raggatt, P. and Small, N. (1996) (Eds.), The learning society - Challenges and Trends (London: Routledge).

Efstratoglou, A., (2004), The continuing vocational training in Greece Enimerosi –106 (INE-GSEE), pp 2-13 [in Modern Greek].

European Commission (1993), White Paper: Growth, competitiveness, and employment. The challenges and ways forward into the 21st century. COM (93) 700 final (Brussels, 5 December 1993).

European Commission (2002), European Report on Quality Indicators of Lifelong Learning (Brussels).

Galbraith, J.K., (1998), A Journey Through Economic Time - A Firsthand View. (trans. in Modern Greek by R. Katakatsani) (Athens: Kaktos).

Giavrimis, P., Papanis, E. and Roumeliotou, M. (2007), Topics of Sociology of Educations (Mytilene (Greece): Doukas & SIA). [in Modern Greek].

Gotovos, Α.Ε., (1990), Educational interaction, communication and social learning in school (Athens: Gutenberg) [in Modern Greek].

Gouvias, D., (2003), Lifelong education. No thank you! I won’t take it! The importance to generate “demand” for adult education, using IT and communications. In Sociology: A Lesson of Freedom. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conferences of Sociology (Thessaloniki- 8-10 November 2002), pp. 235-251. [in Modern Greek].

GSAE (: General Secretary of Adult Education), (2006), Lifelong Education and Adult Education – A Report on Action (Athens: GSAE) [in Modern Greek].

Hargreaves, A., (2003), Teaching in the Knowledge Society (Maidenhead: Open University Press).

Hellenic Ministry of Employment and Social Protection-E.C. (2005), Qualifications at full career! The Business Plan “Recruitment and Vocational Training” (an informative leaflet) (Athens) [in Modern Greek].

Hellenic Parliament, Law 3369 (06-07-2005): Systematisation of lifelong learning and other regulations - FEK 171 (Athens) [in Modern Greek].

Jarvis, P. (2004). Adult and continuing education: theory and practice (trans. In Modern Greek by Alexandra Maniati) (Athens: Metechmio) [any citations are from the Greek translation].

Katrivesis, Ν., (2003), Social developments and vocational training. In Sociology: A Lesson of Freedom. In Sociology: A Lesson of Freedom. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of Sociology (Thessaloniki, 8-10 November 2002), pp. 178-196 [in Modern Greek].

Kelpanidis, Μ. and Vrynioti, Κ. (2004), Lifelong Education (Athens: Ellinika Grammata) [in Modern Greek].

Kelpanidis, Μ., (2002), Sociology of Education: Theories and reality. (Athens: Ellinika Grammata) [in Modern Greek].

Kokkos, A., (1999), The Field: Learning Principles and Factors (Patra: Hellenic Open University) [in Modern Greek].

Kokkos, Α., (2005), Adult Education: Exploring the field (Athens: Metechmio) [in Modern Greek].

Kossyvaki, F., (2003), Alternative education: Proposals for a transition from the education of the object to the education of the active subject. Thessaloniki: Gutenberg [in Modern Greek].

Linardos-Rylmon, P., (2004), Human resources training and surveys on labour market. Enimerosi – 110 (INE-GSEE), pp 10-15 [in Modern Greek].

Mardas, G., (2001), Economic theory, lifelong education, social policy (Athens: Papazisis) [in Modern Greek].

Mezirow, J., (1981), A critical theory of adult learning and education. Adult Education, 23, 3–24.

Mezirow, J., (1991), Transformative dimensions of adult learning (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass).

Mylonas, F., (1998), Sociology of Greek Education (Athens: Gutenberg) [in Modern Greek].

National Hellenic Essay to OECD (2003), The role of national systems of certification and recognition of qualifications while promoting lifelong education (Athens: EKEPIS) [in Modern Greek].

Negreponti–Delivani, Μ., (2001), Conspiratorial “Globalisation” (Athens: Papazisis) [in Modern Greek].

OECD (1996). The Knowledge-based economy. (Paris: OECD Publications).

OECD / European Commission (2004), Career Guidance: A Handbook for Policy Makers (Paris: OECD Publications).

P.N.U.D. (2001) Rapport mondial sur le developpement humain. Paris, De Boeck Université.

Pantidis, S. and Pasias, G. (2003), The European dimension in Education (Athens: Gutenberg) [in Modern Greek].

Rifkin, J., (1996), The End of Work: The decline of global labor force and the down of the post-market-era (trans. In Modern Greek Giouri Kovalenkos) (Athens: Nea Synora) [any citations are from the Greek translation].

Robolis, S., Dimoulas, Κ. and Galata, Β. (1999), The lifelong vocational training in Greece (Athens: INE) [in Modern Greek].

Rogers, J., (1989), Adults learning (Milton Keynes: Open University Press).

Tsiolis, G., (2005), Work and training in the planning of life histories of the young: A micro-sociological approach. In Gravaris, D. and Papadakis, N. (eds.) Education and educational policy: Between the State and the Market (Athens: Savvalas), pp. 461-490 [in Modern Greek].

UNESCO, 1976, Nairobi: Recommendations on the development of adult education: Declaration of Nairobi conference (Paris).

University of Piraeus (2001), A research into employment prospects in Labour Market and an Identification of the demand for specialities in the 13 regions of the country. The balance of demand and offer of professions (OOWF: Organisation of Occupation of the Workforce) [in Modern Greek].

Zisimopoulos, Ch. and Koutsotheodorou, Ε. (2002), Long-lasting unemployment in Greece handled by part-time employment: School Career Orientation (: S.E.P. in Greek) and the orientation through lifelong counseling. Patra [in Modern Greek].

Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια: